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Dr. Lawrence J. Fogel (1928-2007), Past President of Natural Selection, Inc:

Dr. Fogel's career spanned over 50 years of the practical application of solutions to real-world problems. After working on antenna design early in his career he was head of the reliability group at Convair in San Diego from 1956-1960, and then served at the National Science Foundation from 1960-1961 as special assistant to the associate director (research). He was subsequently a senior staff scientist at General Dynamics/Astronautics (1961-1965), president of Decision Science, Inc. (1965-1982), corporate vice president of Titan Systems, Inc. (1982-1987), and corporate vice president of ORINCON Corporation (1987-1993). He cofounded Natural Selection, Inc. in 1993.

Dr. Fogel's research interests included the engineering potential of evolutionary programming as well as the evolution of human intelligence and consciousness. He received the Ph.D. in engineering from UCLA in 1964. Dr. Fogel conducted much of the primary research in evolutionary programming in the early 1960s and is co-author of Artificial Intelligence Through Simulated Evolution, the first book in evolutionary computation, published by John Wiley, 1966. He holds six patents, and had over 100 publications in journals, conferences, and edited volumes. He was the founding editor of the Journal of Cybernetics (1970) and was a member of the editorial boards of Evolutionary Computation and BioSystems. He was also the inventor of the Valuated State Space® In 1995, Dr. Fogel was honored with a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Evolutionary Programming Society in recognition of over 30 years of sustained contributions to the field of evolutionary computation. He was also honored by the IEEE Neural Networks Council with their first Pioneer Award in Evolutionary Computation, presented in 1998, and was elected a Fellow of the IEEE in that same year.

Dr. Fogel presented keynote lectures at the 7th International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (East Lansing, MI, July 1997) and the 1997 Intelligent Systems and Semiotics Conference (Gaithersburg, MD, August 1997). His most recent publication was the book Intelligence Through Simulated Evolution: Forty Years of Evolutionary Programming, published by John Wiley, 1999, as part of their series on intelligent systems edited by James Albus, Alex Meystel, and Lotfi Zadeh, which details the advances made in applying evolutionary programming from 1970 to the present day.

On July 19, 2006 Dr. Lawrence J. Fogel Received the Inaugural IEEE Frank Rosenblatt Technical Field Award. The award was presented for outstanding contributions to the advancement of the design, practice, techniques or theory in biologically and linguistically motivated computational paradigms, including but not limited to neural networks, connectionist systems, evolutionary computation, fuzzy systems, and hybrid intelligent systems in which these paradigms are contained.

For additional information on Dr. Fogel's contributions to the American Society for Cybernetics please visit:



Several articles about Dr. Fogel can be found in IEEE Computiational Intelligence Magazine via the following link:


Selected Publications

Fogel LJ (1963) Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications, Prentice Hall.

Fogel LJ, Owens AJ, and Walsh MJ (1964) "On the Evolution of Artificial Intelligence," Proc. of the Fifth IEEE Natl. Symp. on Human Factors in Electronics, pp. 63-76.

Fogel LJ, Owens AJ, and Walsh MJ (1964) "An Evolutionary Prediction Technique," IEEE International Symposium on Microwaves, Circuit Theory, and Information Theory, pp. 173-174.

Fogel LJ, Owens AJ, and Walsh MJ (1966) Artificial Intelligence Through Simulated Evolution, Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

Fogel DB, Fogel LJ, and Atmar JW (1991) "Meta-Evolutionary Programming," Proc. of 25th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems & Computers, R.R. Chen (ed.), Pacific Grove, CA, pp. 540-545.

Fogel DB, Fogel LJ, Atmar JW, and Fogel GB (1992) "Hierarchic Methods of Evolutionary Programming," Proc. of the First Annual Conf. on Evolutionary Programming, Evolutionary Programming Society, D.B. Fogel and W. Atmar (eds.), La Jolla, CA, 175-182

Fogel LJ (1995) "The Valuated State Space Approach and Evolutionary Computation for Problem Solving," In Computational Intelligence: A Dynamic System Perspective, edited by M Palaniswami, Y Attikiouzel, RJ Marks, D Fogel, and T Fukuda, IEEE Press, NY, pp. 129-136.

Porto VW, Fogel DB, and Fogel LJ (1995) "Alternative Neural Network Training Methods," IEEE Expert, Vol. 10(3), June, pp. 16- 22

Porto VW and Fogel LJ (1997) "Evolution of Intelligently Interactive Behaviors for Simulated Forces," Evolutionary Programming VI, P.J. Angeline, R.G. Reynolds, J.R. McDonnell, and R. Eberhart (eds.), Springer, Berlin, pp. 419-429.

Fogel LJ (1999) Intelligence Through Simulated Evolution: Forty Years of Evolutionary Programming, Wiley, New York.

Porto VW, Fogel LJ, and Fogel DB (2004) "Using Evolutionary Computation for Seismic Signal Processing: A Homeland Security Application," Proceedings of 2004 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence for Homeland Security and Personal Safety, pp. 62-66.

For more information please see the NSI Publications Library or email Dr. David Fogel at: dfogel [at] natural-selection.com